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Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urinationincreased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complicationsAcute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosishyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular diseasestrokechronic kidney diseasefoot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

  • Type 1 diabetes results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.

  • Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.

  • Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.

 

As of 2017, an estimated 425 million people had diabetes worldwide, with type 2 diabetes making up about 90% of the cases. This represents 8.8% of the adult population, with equal rates in both women and men. The trend suggests that rates will continue to rise. Diabetes at least doubles a person's risk of early death. In 2017, diabetes resulted in approximately 3.2 to 5.0 million deaths. The global economic cost of diabetes-related health expenditure in 2017 was estimated at US$727 billion. In the United States, diabetes cost nearly US$245 billion in 2012. Average medical expenditures among people with diabetes are about 2.3 times higher.

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